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Occasionally you may notice that your breast milk is streaked with red (or pink or brown) after you have expressed your milk or after your baby has spit up some breast milk after a feed. Naturally you will be worried that it might be blood and where it might have come from. Has it come from a cracked nipple or deeper in your breast, could it be from your baby? If it is from your breast will it harm your baby? This article looks at common causes of blood in breast milk and answers frequently asked questions.

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A little blood in breast milk in the early days of breastfeeding is quite common due to the changes within the breast

Common causes of blood in breast milk include:

“Rusty pipe syndrome” A cracked or damaged nipple Damagedcapillaries in the breast Intraductal pailloma Fibrocystic changes

Although not usually serious, it’s always a good idea to mention any blood to your health care provider. Rarely, a bloody nipple discharge can be an indication of breast cancer

This is the name given to small amounts of blood seen in breastmilk duringthe first week or so after birth. It’s thought to be due to extra blood flow to the breast and fast development of glandular tissue. Itis discussed in Dr Jack Newman’s Guide to Breastfeeding :

It is not surprising that sometimes blood vessels leak a little blood into a duct, and it then comes out of the nipple. It is not dangerous for the mother or the baby. Sometimes when a baby swallows blood he may spit it up because it irritates his stomach, but it really does him no harm. The bleeding usually disappears by 7 to 10 days after birth. Breastfeeding must not be interrupted.

Raising the external pH has a number of effects on yeast metabolism. First, an external pH closer to the intracellular pH places less stress on cells, and less energy is wasted in maintaining the internal pH within a range optimal for growth. Second, if the media contain organic acids, raising the pH to a higher value would reduce the concentration of undissociated acid for a given amount of total acid and thus decrease its inhibitory effect on yeast growth. It has been suggested, however, that passive diffusion of undissociated acetic acid or lactic acid across the plasma membrane of S. cerevisiae is subject to opposing influences and that with increasing pH, the permeability of undissociated acids increases while their concentrations decrease ( Cheap Big Discount Free Shipping Perfect Icon bracelet Metallic Dsquared2 Cost Cheap Price Sneakernews Sale Online 0ryFqouJ
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). Third, although undissociated acids enter cells by passive diffusion, their accumulation inside cells is still a function of the difference between external and internal pH values (ΔpH) ( COATS amp; JACKETS Faux furs MPD BOX Buy Cheap Exclusive Explore Best Price DEYWzoCGU9
, 14 ). One reason for the reduced inhibition by weak acids at higher pH values may be the smaller ΔpH. Fourth, the buffer pairs formed from organic acids when the pH is adjusted protect the yeast against a rapid decrease in pH. This explains why the acidification of cytoplasm with increasing concentrations of acetic acid is much less in adapted cells than in nonadapted cells ( 19 ). Adaptation may involve building up a sufficient concentration of the acid to create a buffer pair internally to resist pH change. It has been reported that anions formed through dissociation of carboxylic acids are retained within the cells ( 18 ) while protons are ejected through an energy (ATP)-coupled reaction involving plasma membrane ATPase. Potassium ions are taken up by yeast cells in exchange for hydrogen ions to maintain ionic stasis ( Foldaway Tote NOSOTROS COLLECTION/GRC by VIDA VIDA Free Shipping Online Quality Free Shipping Largest Supplier Recommend Cheap Online 1Ldrj
, 13 ). Depending on the ΔpH and the external concentration of the acid, the molarity of the buffer pair inside the cells at equilibrium can be very large ( 16 ), and this would enhance the internal buffering capacity. Reduced inhibition by acetic acid may therefore be related to maintenance of intracellular pH by internal buffering at a level that is close to optimum for growth. Less than expected growth inhibition at low total acetic acid concentration (in spite of the low pH) may be attributed to the depletion of undissociated acid or to a reduction in its concentration through its continued diffusion into yeast cells and subsequent dissociation inside the cells. As protons formed through dissociation of the acid are pumped out, more of the undissociated acid from the medium diffuses into the cells. This process will continue until the undissociated acid in the medium is exhausted or until the cells can no longer pump out protons and thereby prevent acidification of the cytoplasm. As more and more undissociated acid from the medium diffuses into the cells, more of the dissociated acid external to the cells is converted to undissociated acid to reestablish the equilibrium. These observations can be summarized as follows. First, the amount of undissociated acid that diffuses into cells and its equilibrium concentration inside the cells are functions of the external concentration of undissociated acid and the pH of the medium. Second, the equilibrium between the external and internal concentrations of undissociated acid will be reestablished if the undissociated acid inside the cells dissociates as a result of higher intracellular pH. If the dissociation continues, more and more undissociated acid will diffuse into the cells, and the amount taken up will be a function of the external concentration of the undissociated acid, which is, in turn, a function of the total acid concentration and the pH. The implication is that the magnitude of growth inhibition is a function of the total concentration of the acid even though only undissociated acid diffuses into the cells. Because of the dynamic equilibrium between undissociated and dissociated forms both outside and inside the cells and the passage of undissociated acids across the membrane, continued removal of one component of the equilibrium reaction (protons in this case) would shift the reaction to further dissociation, and the removal of undissociated acid from the medium would continue.

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SAT Prep ACT Prep
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| Jun 25, 2018 12:00:00 PM

SAT versus ACT

You’ve probably heard of the ACT and SAT, but how different are these two tests really? In this extensive ACT vs. SAT analysis, we look at the top 11 differences between the ACT and SAT and explain what these differences mean for you. And to conclude, we give you tips on how to decide whether you should take the ACT or SAT.

we look at the top 11 differences between the ACT and SAT

At a glance, the two tests aren't that different. Both the ACT and SAT are nationally recognized standardized tests and common admission requirements for US schools. Catering primarily to high school juniors and seniors, each test measures students’ proficiency in various critical skill areas — such as problem solving and reading comprehension — that are necessary for college success.

the two tests aren't that different.

Additionally, because all US colleges and universities accept scores from either the ACT or SAT, there's no advantage in taking one test over the other. This means you can apply to the same schools, regardless of which test you decide to take!

all US colleges and universities accept scores from either the ACT or SAT,

But what about the actual content of the two tests? Though not identical, the ACT and SAT are more closely related than ever before as a result of the SAT’s massive redesign in 2016 . Now, both exams:

predetermined order, optional essay section rights-only scoring, passage-based Reading and English/Writing questions

Despite all of these similarities, there are still many ways in which the ACT and SAT differ from each other. For one, the SAT is overall slightly longer than the ACT. What's more, the number of questions and time limits are different for corresponding sections.

there are still many ways in which the ACT and SAT differ from each other.

Here is a brief overview of the basic structural and logistical differences between the ACT and SAT:

So are these the only ways in which the ACT and SAT differ? Not at all! In fact, the two tests differ quite significantly in 11 key ways. Read on to see what these differences are and what they ultimately mean for you.

the two tests differ quite significantly in 11 key ways.

Now, let's begin our ACT vs. SAT comparison. Although both tests share several similarities, here are themost important differences for you to consider before deciding whether to take the SAT or ACT.

Sometimes a food in mother’s diet may colour her breast milk pink e.g. beetroot. In Baby Poop: What Your Pediatrician May Not Tell You , author Linda Palmer says that the pigments from natural foods such as beets are usually good antioxidants and don’t need to be avoided. She adds that if if the pigment has coloured the milk this means it has passed through mother’s system undigested and will probably go through baby’s system the same way.

Thomas Hale describes another possible cause of pink/red milk that may not be blood;a bacteria called Serratia marsescens . Although S. marsescens is normally harmless and commonly found in children’s gastrointestinal tracts it can be the cause of infection, especially for premature babies.

It is unlikely that a baby feeding directly from the mother’s breast will consume enough bacteria to cause disease. However improper handling of breast milk may allow the bacteria to multiply to numbers capable of producing disease. Refrigeration of breast milk and breastfeeding equipment is usually sufficient to prevent Serratia from multiplying and generating pigment.

The authoradvises never feeding ababy pink-red discoloured breast milk until cleared by a doctor. See the full article for further information.

A little blood in breast milk is not harmful to your breastfed baby and is a common occurrence in the first week or so after a baby’s birth. Reasons for short periods of blood in breast milk include rusty pipe syndrome, cracked bleeding nipples, broken capillaries in the breast or an intraductal papilloma. Any blood in breast milk that continues past the first week after birth, or blood in breast milk that arrives later during lactation should bediscussedwith your doctor but in most cases breastfeeding can continue.

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Footnotes References

Walker, , 2017

Unusual Appearances of Breastmilk , Australian Breastfeeding Association, 2017

Mohrbacher, , 2010, p 702

Wilson-Clay and Hoover, , 2018

, Lawrence and Lawrence, 8e, 2016

Walker, , 2017

Unusual Appearances of Breastmilk , Australian Breastfeeding Association, 2017

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ILCA, 2012

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, Rusty Pipe Syndrome

This article should not be construed as medical advice. Information found online should always be discussed with your own IBCLC lactation consultant and doctor to ensure it is appropriate for you and your baby’s situation. Contact your doctor, paediatricianor health care provider with any concerns about your baby’s health and welfare.

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