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Congressman Mark Pocan

Representing the 2nd District of Wisconsin

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Volume 207
Issue 2
November, 2016
John E. Ebel
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Daniel W. Chambers
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, Volume 207, Issue 2, 1 November 2016, Pages 862–875, https://doi.org/10.1093/gji/ggw312
19 August 2016
Article history
20 May 2016
Revision Received:
16 August 2016
17 August 2016

John E. Ebel, Daniel W. Chambers; Using the locations of M ≥ 4 earthquakes to delineate the extents of the ruptures of past major earthquakes, Geophysical Journal International , Volume 207, Issue 2, 1 November 2016, Pages 862–875, https://doi.org/10.1093/gji/ggw312

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Some modern seismicity in the magnitude range of M 4 and M 6 in California and eastern North America preferentially occurs at the edges of past large ruptures. Once a large earthquake rupture has occurred, stress is concentrated at the edges of the rupture, and apparently this stress concentration can trigger earthquakes at or near the rupture edges many decades or even longer after a main shock. Furthermore, the modern M ≥ 4 earthquakes in the vicinity of a past main shock usually have the same focal mechanism as the earlier main shock. There are a number of examples of this in California and Nevada, where there is a statistically significant correlation of the locations of M ≥ 4 earthquakes and the edges of 19th and 20th century fault ruptures in M w ≥ 6.5 earthquakes. In contrast, the M ≥ 4 earthquakes near the epicentres of future ruptures in California are randomly scattered around the fault with no concentration near the ends of the future fault rupture. The concentration of earthquakes near the ends of earlier large ruptures in California becomes progressively less pronounced as the smallest magnitude in the data set is reduced from M 4.0 to M 3.0. These observations also appear to be true for intraplate regions where aftershock sequences can last millennia. The identification of modern rupture-edge M ≥ 4 aftershocks can be used to help discover where and when past strong earthquakes took place, even if there is no historical record of the main shock. This is of great importance for seismic hazard studies.

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Hypertension, which is characterized by multiple alterations in the structure and function of the cell membrane, is often associated with important metabolic abnormalities including those concerning lipid metabolism. Dyslipidemia accompanying essential hypertension consists of elevated plasma triglycerides, low HDL cholesterol, and increased levels of atherogenic LDL cholesterol particles. The altered membrane microviscosity seen in hypertensive subjects reflects the changes of membrane lipid composition resulting from intensive exchange between circulating and membrane lipids, as well as from abnormal cellular lipid synthesis and metabolism. The changes of membrane microviscosity are known to modulate the activity of proteins involved in ion transport, signal transduction, cell Ca 2+ handling, intracellular pH regulation, etc. Alterations in plasma or membrane lipids are indeed closely associated with ion transport abnormalities as well as with impaired control of cytosolic Ca 2+ and pH in various forms of hypertension in both humans and rats. Such lipid-dependent modifications of membrane properties in cells participating in the cardiovascular regulation might be a part of pathogenetic mechanisms responsible for chronic blood pressure elevation. Thus nutritional and pharmacologic interventions aiming to normalize abnormal lipid metabolism could be useful for amelioration of membrane abnormalities and lowering of high blood pressure. Future studies of functional membrane alterations in hypertension or dyslipidemia will therefore require the detailed determination of membrane lipid composition and the measurement of microviscosity in particular membrane domains. Am J Hypertens 1999;12:315–331 © 1999 American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd.

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There is no doubt that essential hypertension is associated with multiple membrane alterations, including changes in membrane microviscosity, receptor function, signal transduction, ion transport, calcium mobilization, intracellular pH regulation, and so on. Lipids, as an integral part of the cell membrane, play a decisive role in the modulation of the membrane properties mentioned. Specific lipid-lipid and lipid-protein interactions result in a highly dynamic but precisely controlled architecture of membrane components. Major regulators of membrane architecture are membrane potential, intracellular Ca 2+ and pH, lipid composition, cell-to-cell contact, and membrane coupling with the cytoskeleton or extracellular matrix. Intermolecular associations in the membrane and at the membrane-cytoskeleton interface are further selectively controlled by specific phosphorylation and dephosphorylation cascades involving both proteins and lipids. This is regulated by the extracellular matrix as well as by the binding of growth factors and hormones to their specific receptors. 1 , 2

Funding for this project was provided by the United States Department of Health and Human Services,Administration for Children and Families, Grant: #90FK0072. Funding for this project was also provided by the Department of Workforce Services. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in these programs are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the funders.

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